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Guideline for COVID-19

 Guideline for COVID-19 |kRAH3|
Guideline for COVID-19
The SARS-Cov-2 virus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) is a very small genetic material that has three main components, namely Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Protein, and Lipid. At the core of the coronavirus, there is a carrier of genetic information called RNA. The single strand of RNA acts as a molecular message that allows the production of proteins needed for other elements of the virus. Nucleoproteins are proteins bound to RNA sequences that help give the virus a structure and allow them to replicate. Coronavirus’ spike proteins act like a magnet allowing the virus to attach to host cells and open them up for infection. Like all viruses, Coronavirus cannot develop and reproduce outside of a host cell.
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Coronavirus will enter the body through the nose and mouth. The Coronavirus that attacks the respiratory tract is transmitted through droplets when someone is either talking, sneezing, or coughing. The most common symptoms of the Coronavirus are fever, dry cough, fatigue, diarrhea, skin rash, loss of sense of taste and smell, and difficulty breathing.

The occurrence of COVID-19, which began with the entry of the Coronavirus into body cells, consisted of several stages involving the ACE2 and TMPRSS2 enzymes. Coronavirus that enters the body binds to the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor and will be activated by TMPRSS2 (Transmembrane Protease Serine 2). Coronavirus that is bound to the ACE2 receptor will enter the cell, carry out RNA replication thus the number of the virus is increasing.
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Coronavirus that enters the body will cause the body's immune response and cause inflammation. Inflammation can trigger the formation of free radicals in the form of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS). There are actually antioxidants in the body to neutralize free radicals. However, under certain conditions, antioxidants in the body are unable to outnumber free radicals, resulting in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can cause cell damage including mitochondria.

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Mitochondria are part of the cell that functions as a producer of energy in the form of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). This is what causes patients infected with the coronavirus to feel weak. Inflammation that occurs due to coronavirus infection can also become very severe due to the occurrence of cytokine storms which if continued, it can cause damage to body organs causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, loss of smell, blood clots, and can continue to cause further damage to multi-organs such as lungs, gastrointestinal tract, brain, heart, liver, kidneys, eyes.

Treatments commonly given to COVID-19 patients :
1. Symptomatic treatment or medical therapy of a disease that only affects its symptoms. For example, if you have a fever, antipyretic drugs (fever lowering) such as paracetamol are given
2. Antivirals, such as remdesivir and/or favipiravir to inhibit viral replication (multiplication in human cells). Antivirals are not able to prevent the virus from entering cells.
3. Antioxidants, such as vitamins C, D, E, and Zinc to prevent cell damage
4. Anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressant such as steroids to treat inflammation and suppress cytokine storms
5. Antibiotics, such as azithromycin to treat secondary bacterial infections

The side effects of taking anti-inflammatory long-term, like steroids, can suppress the HPA axis (Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal) causing unwanted side effects including suppressing the body's immune system.

The use of antioxidants in COVID-19 patients is beneficial in overcoming oxidative stress. It is important to know that antioxidants have different potentials from one another. In this case, the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) benchmark is used to determine how much antioxidants can be absorbed by the body. The higher the ORAC value, the better the potential of an antioxidant. One fruit that has a high ORAC value is Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) with an ORAC value of 10,000-25,000 μmol TE/100 g fw. 1 tablet of vitamin C is worth a maximum of 100 ORAC value, while 1 capsule of VIRADEF is worth 10,000 ORAC. Antioxidants such as vitamin C should not be used excessively, since they have the potential to cause oxalate crystals in the form of kidney stones.

Keep in mind that existing antivirals on the market cannot inhibit viruses from entering cells, instead they work to prevent viral replication after the virus has entered the cells. Meanwhile, VIRADEF products from BIOTEK FARMASI INDONESIA can help inhibit viruses from entering the body.

VIRADEF products are indicated to help maintain body. Scientific journals show that the composition of this product has several FEATURES or characteristics, namely:
1) Inhibits TMPRSS2 which activates the coronavirus entering the body
2) Has antioxidants that can reduce oxidative stress
3) Has anti-inflammatory effect
4) Increase cellular energy/ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and increase muscle strength

Some of the FEATURES above provide BENEFITS for users, namely:
1) Helps prevent viral infections from entering the body
2) Helps inhibit cell, tissue, and organ damage
3) Helps overcome inflammation/inflammation caused by cytokine storms
4) Helps increase energy lost due to viral infections

The recommended dose of VIRADEF :
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VIRADEF from BIOTEK FARMASI INDONESIA is originator product, not imitating existing ones. This product was developed based on years of research.

Please click the products page for more information.

REFERENCES :
[1] A. Tsoupras, D. Moran, T. Byrne, J. Ryan, L. Barrett, C. Traas and I. Zabetakis, "Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Platelet Properties of Lipid Bioactives from Apple Cider By-Products," MPDI, vol. 26, pp. 1-2, 2021.

[2] M. Jahantigh, H. Kalantari, S. A. Davari and D. Saadati, "Effects of dietary vinegar on performance, immune response and small intestine histomorphology in 1- to 28-day broiler chickens," Veterinary Medicine and Science, vol. 7, pp. 766-767, 771, 2020.

[3] H. A. Motlagh, A. Javadmanesh and O. Safari, "Improvement of non-specific immunity, growth, and activity of digestive enzymes in Carassius auratus as a result of apple cider vinegar administration to diet," Fish Physiol Biochem, p. 1, 2020.

[4] R. W. J. K. Dhanjal, V. Kumar, S. C. Kaul and D. Sundar, "Why Ashwagandha for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19?," Applied Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1-2, 2020.

[5] P. Shree, P. Mishra, C. Selvara, S. K. Singh, R. Chaube, N. Garg and Y. B. Tripathi, "Targeting COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease through active phytochemicals of ayurvedic medicinal plants – Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) – a molecular docking study," JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS, p. 3, 2020.

[6] M. K. Tripathia, P. Singh, S. Sharma, T. P. Singh, A. S. Ethayathulla and P. Kaur, "Identification of bioactive molecule from Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) as SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitor," JOURNAL OF BIOMOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS, pp. 1-2, 2020.

[7] S. Wankhede, D. Langade, K. Joshi, S. R. Sinha and S. Bhattacharyya, "Examining the effect of Withania somnifera supplementation on muscle strength and recovery: a randomized controlled trial," Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, pp. 1-11, 2015.

[8] S. Vidyashankara, O. Thiyagarajana, R. S. Varmaa, L. S. Kumarb, U. V. Babub and P. S. Patkic, "Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) supercritical CO2 extract derived withanolides mitigates Bisphenol A induced mitochondrial toxicity in HepG2 cells," Toxicology Reports, pp. 1004-1005, 2014.

[9] M. Dhawan, M. Parmar, K. Sharun, R. Tiwari, M. Bilal and K. Dhama, "Medicinal and therapeutic potential of withanolides from Withania somnifera against COVID-19," Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 006-011, 2021.

[10] A. B. Kunnumakkara, V. Rana, D. Parama, K. Banik, S. Girisa, H. Sahu, K. K. Thakur, U. Dutta, P. Garodia3, S. C. Gupta and B. B. Aggarwal, "COVID-19, Cytokines, Inflammation, and Spices: How are They Related?," Life Sciences, 2020.

[11] R. Grzanna, L. Lindmark and a. C. G. Frondoza, "Ginger—An Herbal Medicinal Product with Broad Anti-Inflammatory Actions," JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 130, 2005.
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