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Guideline for Kidney Disease

Kidney Diseasae Guidelines
Kidney’s main function is to maintain fluid balance in the human body. The human kidney consists of two pieces, each located on the right and left of the spine.

The main kidney functions are:
1. Filtration
2. Reabsorption
3. Excretion
4. Glucose metabolism and hormone formation.

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Kidney disorder is a condition where there is a decrease in kidney function, causing the function of filtering and removing substances by the kidneys to be disrupted. Common symptoms of kidney disorders are decrease in urine volume, changes in urine color, pain when urinating, pain in the back of the abdomen that can radiate to the legs, and swelling in the legs.

Kidney disorders are divided into two, namely:
1. Acute kidney disorders where the decline in kidney function occurs suddenly
2. Chronic kidney disorders where the decline in kidney function occurs gradually over 3 months

One of the functions of the kidneys is to filter the remnants of metabolism in the body. If there is a decrease in kidney function under certain conditions, the kidneys cannot perform an optimal filtering. One way to diagnose patients with kidney failure can refer to the value of GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate).

GFR (Glomerular Filtration Rate) is the average rate of the kidney's ability to filter. GFR measurement is usually calculated by eGFR (estimated Glomerulus Filtration Rate) which is based on creatinine in blood, age, and gender. According to CKDIGO (Chronic Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes), the following are the stages of chronic kidney failure based on GFR values:

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Damage to the kidneys is caused by chronic inflammation which can be caused by various conditions like viral infection or certain diseases detected. Prolonged chronic inflammation will cause an increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) and RNS (Reactive Nitrogen Species), which are free radicals. These large amounts of free radicals cannot be neutralized by antioxidants in the body, thus triggering oxidative stress. Oxidative stress that occurs continuously will cause damage to kidney cells, including mitochondria which is a site to produce ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate). Lack of ATP in the kidneys triggers a decrease in kidney function, such as decreased urine volume and difficulty urinating.

Complications that can occur due to chronic kidney disease include:
• Anemia: caused by a decrease in erythropoietin produced by the kidneys, along with a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate
• Cardiovascular disease: all patients with chronic kidney disease are advised to be considered at high risk of cardiovascular disease
• Hyperkalemia: caused by the inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium from the food intake.
• Pulmonary edema: fluid overload occurs due to impaired regulation of fluid in the kidneys in patients with chronic kidney disease

Treatment for kidney disorders can be done with non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. Recommended non-pharmacological treatments are diet and exercise. Whereas pharmacological or drugs treatment must be customized to the cause of the occurrence of kidney disorders, such as:
• Sodium Bicarbonate to raise the pH level and reduce acidity in the kidneys.
• Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors / Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) to lower high blood pressure.
• Diuretic drugs such as furosemide, to increase fluid from the body.

Meanwhile, for patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease, the treatment is done by dialysis (dialysis) and kidney transplant surgery.

The combined components of several products from BIOTEK FARMASI INDONESIA have antioxidant characteristics and can increase cellular energy / ATP (Adenosine Tri Phosphate) in the kidneys which can help maintain kidney function, thus helping to ease urination.

Some of the advantages above provide benefits for users, namely:
1) Helps improve kidney function
2) Helps inhibit kidney cell damage

The recommended dose of K-FIX based on GFR values is:

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K-FIX is originator product, not imitating existing ones. This product was developed based on years of research. More complete information about the product can be seen in the product menu.

REFERENSI
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[2] C. L. C´espedes-Acu˜na, J. Xiaob, Z.-J. Weic, L. Chend, J. M. Bastiase, J. G. Avilaf, J. Alarcon-Enosa and E. W.-N. a. I. Kubo, "Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from Maqui berry Aristotelia chilensis in human colon cancer cells," Journal of Berry Research, p. 275, 2018.
[3] Z. Lu, Y. Zhong, W. Liu, L. Xiang and Y. Deng, "The Efficacy and Mechanism of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Diabetic Kidney Disease," Journal of Diabetes Research, p. 8, 2019.
[4] T. S. Laasya, S. Thakur, R. Poduri and G. Joshi, "Current insights toward kidney injury: Decrypting the dual role and mechanism involved of herbal drugs in inducing kidney injury and its treatment," Current Research in Biotechnology, p. 168, 2020.
[5] L. S. Wieland, V. Piechotta, T. Feinberg, E. Ludeman, B. Hutton, S. Kanji, D. Seely and C. Garritty, "Elderberry for prevention and treatment of viral respiratory illnesses: a systematic review," BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, pp. 1-2, 2021.
[6] G. T. T. Ho, HelleWangensteen and H. Barsett, "Elderberry and Elderflower Extracts, Phenolic Compounds, and Metabolites and Their Effect on Complement, RAW264.7 Macrophages and Dendritic Cells," International Journal of Molecule Science, pp. 1-2, 2017.
[7] A. B. Howell, "Bioactive compounds in cranberries and their role in prevention of urinary tract infections," Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 51, p. 732, 2007.
[8] R. G. Jepson, G. W. and J. C. Craig, "Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections," The Cochrane Collaboration, p. 2, 2014.
[9] D. G. d. Llano, M. V. Moreno-Arribas and B. Bartolomé, "Cranberry Polyphenols and Prevention against Urinary Tract Infections: Relevant Considerations," Molecules, p. 1, 2020.
[10] R. P. Feliciano, C. G. Krueger and J. D. Reed, "Methods to determine effects of cranberry proanthocyanidins on extraintestinal infections: Relevance for urinary tract health," Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, pp. 1292, 1300, 2015.
[11] H.-I. Chou, K.-S. Chen, H.-C. Wang and W.-M. Lee, "Effects of cranberry extract on prevention of urinary tract infection in dogs and on adhesion of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells," AJVR, vol. 77, pp. 421, 426, 2015.
[12] A. P. S. Caldas, O. G. L. Coelho and J. Bressan, "Cranberry antioxidant power on oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial damage," International Journal Of Food Properties, vol. 21, p. 1, 2018.
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